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Search Results for Publications (1603 records)

1.
Rivers in Contention: Is There a Water War in South Asias Future?
Author(s): Wirsing, R. G.
Published year: 2008-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source:

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Abstract:
Keywords:Interest,Political science,Water War,Rivers,Resources,South Asia
2.
Burden of skin lesions of arsenicosis at higher exposure through groundwater of taluke gambit district Khairpur, Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey
Author(s): Fatmi, Z.; Abbasi, I. N.; Ahmed, M.; Kazi, A.; Kayama, F.
Published year: 2013-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

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Abstract:Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified. Case screening for arsenic skin lesions was performed for 610 individuals residing in these 110 high-risk households. Information regarding household and socio-demographic characteristics, height and weight measurements and arsenic exposure assessment were collected. Physical examinations by trained physicians were carried out to diagnose the arsenic skin lesions. After data cleaning, 534 individuals from all age groups were included in the final analysis which had complete exposure and outcome information. Overall prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions was 13.5 % (72 cases). Of the 534 individuals, 490 (91.8 %) were exposed to arsenic levels of 100 ppb in drinking water (8.2 % to >50-99 ppb, 58.6 % to 100-299 ppb, 14.6 % to 300-399 ppb and 18 % to 400 ppb). Prevalence rate (per 100 population) of arsenicosis was highest at arsenic levels of 100-199 ppb (15.2 cases) followed by 400 ppb (13.5 cases) and 300-399 (12.8 cases). Prevalence rate was higher among females (15.2) compared to males (11.3). Our study reports arsenicosis burden due to exposure to higher arsenic levels in drinking water in Pakistan. Exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water calls for urgent action along river Indus. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with increasing arsenic levels in drinking groundwater. Provision of arsenic-free drinking water is essential to avoid current and future burden of arsenicosis in Pakistan.
Keywords:Groundwater, Wells, Villages, Surveys, Drinking water
3.
Hydro-geology and water resources of Indus-Gangetic Basin: comparative analysis of issues and opportunities
Author(s): Sharma, Bharat R.
Published year: 2009-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Annals of Arid Zone

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Abstract:This paper gives an overview of water resources, its availability and use, problems and constraints, the present and future challenges and the ensuing opportunities in water resource sector of one of the most populated river basins of the world; the Indus-Gangetic basin. Large-scale development of water resources in the Indus basin has led to the resource base being depleted, both in terms of quantity as well as quality. Well-developed surface irrigation systems in the Indus basin tap most of the surface water available in the basin, leaving only 10% of the net runoff to the sea, whereas from Ganges basin, the net runoff flowing to the sea is about 40%. Groundwater, which is expected to serve as buffer source to compensate for the reduced surface water availability, is also getting depleted. Energy and agricultural sector policies followed also favour large scale exploitation of groundwater resources in the basin, which has led to water table decline and a reduction in environmental flows. In the Gangetic part of the basin, it is the economic water scarcity which is more prominent. Equally important is the deterioration of water quality of Ganges river, especially when it flows along the plains accumulating municipal, industrial and domestic waste from the rapidly growing cities situated along its banks. Compounded with these issues is the role played by climate change. Since both Indus and Ganges rivers are heavily dependent on snow and glacier melts, the streamflow in these rivers is highly sensitive to climate change. Recent years have witnessed some responses to the water scarcity problem in IG basin the form of popularization of resource conservation practices, growing high yielding short duration varieties of paddy, micro and precision irrigation, regulations to control groundwater use and management. The article presses the need for water resources in the basin to be managed in a conjunctive manner, considering rain water, surface water, soil water and groundwater in continuum. Considering the inter-linkage between groundwater extraction, energy and food policies, groundwater management strategies should have a focus on energy pricing, food pricing and procurement policies also. Nevertheless, devising long-term strategies on water resource management in the basin need not overlook the likely impacts that the changing climate is going to have on water resources.
Keywords:Groundwater recharge, Arsenic, Water scarcity, Water pollution, Flooding, Climate change, River basins, Hydrogeology, Analysis, Precipitation, Evaporation, Runoff, Water quality, Water table, Water governance, Groundwater management, Tube wells, Irrigation programs , Water quality
4.
Efficiency of rating curve extended by logarithmic method
Author(s): Khan, M. I.
Published year: 2001-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan)

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Abstract:
Keywords:Rivers, Cours d'eau, Metodos estadisticos, Methode statistique, Inundacion, Flooding, Cursos de agua, Debit, Flow rate, Inondation, Gasto, Statistical methods
5.
Evaluation of projected minimum temperatures for northern Pakistan
Author(s): Cheema, S. B.; Rasul, G.; Kazmi, D. H.
Published year: 2011-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Pakistan Journal of Meteorology (Pakistan)

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Abstract:
Keywords:Evaluation, Models, Seasons, Pakistan, Air temperature
6.
Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas
Author(s): Kb, A.; Berthier, E.; Nuth, C.; Gardelle, J.; Arnaud, Y.
Published year: 2012-01-01
Publisher(s):Nature Publishing Group, Location: London
Source: Nature (London)

Keywords / Abstract | Link to Publication

Abstract:Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.660.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.210.05 m yr-1 water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.83.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -53 Gt yr-1 over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin.
Keywords:Glaciers, Climate change, Water resources, Satellite observation, River basins
7.
The impact of institutional reforms in water management on the poor
Author(s): Iqbal, S., A. Aftab
Published year: 2000-01-01
Publisher(s):Action Aid Pakistan, Location: Islamabad
Source: Nature (London)

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Abstract:
Keywords:institutional reforms, water management, poor , Gender
8.
Macro policy needs for land and water resources management in canal irrigated area of Pakistan
Author(s): Bhatti, MA
Published year: 1995-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Nature (London)

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Abstract:The study aims at properly utilizing the land and water resources of the country at macro level for optimal crop production. In the study the canal irrigation system of Indus basin has been divided into seventeen zones. The analysis is based on eight crops which are:: wheat, cotton, ice, sugarcane, maize rabi, maize kharif, soybean and sunflower. The yield and water requirements of each crop in each zone have been determined as reported by various researchers. The land resources in each canal command zone have been set though in some zone there is potential for increase. The national and international prices of each crop have been taken on 1993 level. Various scenarios for annual and seasonal water availabilities have been used in the study to see their impacts on crop production. The total amount of water in each canal zone consists of groundwater and surface water. The surface water supply is stochastic however deterministic analysis can be done from the historical water availability. The groundwater potential in each zone have already been determined by WAPDA. A linear optimization model called "AGPOP" has been formulated for maximizing the agricultural products by optimizing the total and net benefits based on national and international rates. The study looks at the optimal production with and without national targets. The sensitivity of various scenarios of water on optimal production via various objectives has been determined. The study looks at land productivity potential at each zone in the total setup with no water constraint. It has been shown that national targets of production can be achieved if the reliability of water (surface and groundwater) is increased and the crop zoning is done. If the surface water availability is increased from 70% to 100% in each canal zone, it will fetch an additional amount 23.30 billion Rs. annually at the optimal use. The study also analyzes various distribution scenarios of water between kharif and rabi seasons and shows that if more water is made available in rabi season than an additional benefits of amount Rs. 10.338 billions can be harvested. The impact of total benefits on Pakistan's prices and International prices has also been highlighted. The ratio between the total achievable benefits from national and international rates at optimal level is 7:2. The optimal analysis for the net and total benefits from the crop production shows that at net benefits levels the farmers are forced to grow sugarcane, soybean and sunflower crops because the net benefits for wheat, cotton and rice are low. The agriculture potential of the irrigated lands, even at the existing yields (which are already very low), is much more than what is being produced. The biggest constraint is the water availability. It is shown that if 157.30 MAF of water is made available in the irrigated area (according to the modified water allocation at various canal zone) then the production of sugarcane, wheat, maize, sunflower, cotton, rice and soybean can be enhanced to 90, 16.5, 28, 3.992, 1.792, 8.026 and 2.15 million tons respectively. By having production at this level an additional benefits of Rs. 68 billions Rs. can be realized annually. This all can be achieved by having more control on water in time and space and is not possible without having more reservoir space in the system. At the moment the existing reservoir spaces
Keywords:irrigation canals , land management , water management , crop production , optimization , available water , resource allocation , pricing , reservoirs , benefits , Productivity
9.
Canal modernization in the Indus Basin Irrigation System
Author(s): Skogerboe, G. V., Habib, Z., Pongput, K., Vehmeyer, P. W., Khan, A. K.
Published year: 1999-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Nature (London)

Keywords / Abstract | Link to Publication

Abstract:
Keywords:Irrigation canals, Modernization, Automation, Discharges, Flow control, Communication, Institutional development, Legislation, Farmers' associations , Gender
10.
A nexus approach, a nexus approach, contribution of Himalayan Ecosystems to water, energy, and food security in South Asia
Author(s): Rasul, G.
Published year: 2012-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Nature (London)

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Abstract:
Keywords:Water, Climate change, Energy, Food security, Nepal, CDR, Ecosystem services, FORESTRY, Adaptation
11.
A characterization of stream temperatures in Pakistan using harmonic analysis
Author(s): Steele, T.D
Published year: 1982-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Hydrological Sciences Journal

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Abstract:Stream temperature variabilities averaging 64% or more were explained by a simple-harmonic function in 43 of the 60 cases. Regional patterns showed a negative correlation of 0.84 between the harmonic mean coefficient and measurement site altitude.
Keywords:steam temperatures, harmonic analysis,
12.
Assessing the Hydrologic Chracteristics of Dal Lake Catchment Using GIS
Author(s): Dar, A.A. ; Romshoo, S.A.
Published year: 2007-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Research Gate

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Abstract:Land use change is a dynamic process and if anthropogenic, it has most often adverse effects on ecological and hydrological processes. For better understanding the impacts of changing physical characteristics on the hydrologic processes, geospatial tools like remote sensing and GIS have been found useful. In this study, the impact of land use change on streamflow has been assessed in the famous Dal Lake catchment, in Jammu and Kashmir, India. A grid based water quality and quantity assessment model WAMview was used to assess the streamflow within the Dal Lake catchment. WAMview developed by SWET allows land use planners to interactively simulate and assess the environmental effects of various land use changes. Land use information for two dates was generated using moderate resolution remotely sensed Landsat TM and ETM data for, 1992 and 2001respectively. Fourteen land use classes were identified using Digital Image Processing technique. Dense mixed forest and plantations dominated the area with both the classes occupying 42 and 44 percent in 1992 and 2001 respectively. Change detection revealed a decrease in the dense forest area by 1.35 percent while built-up area increased from 0.66 percent to 1.23 percent. Increased impervious surfaces like built-up, barren, fallow, and deforested area in 2001 obviously altered peak flow, compared to 1992 scenario. This observed change in land use cover resulted in an increase of 22.23 percent in total annual flow in the Dal Lake catchment. Total flow has increased from 15.66 cumecs in 1992 to 24.92 cumecs in 2001. Evidence from this research suggests that deforestation, urbanization and other changes in land use could affect the streamflow behavior or characteristics which in turn could adversely affect the lake ecology. The findings are useful for developing strategies for the conservation of this important urban lake that is Figurehting a loosing battle for its survival
Keywords:Land use change, Catchment, Hydrology, Streamflow, WAMview, Modelling, Remote Sensing, GIS
13.
Tarbela dam project
Author(s): Khan, B.A., W. Ahmad
Published year: 1999-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Research Gate

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Abstract:Tarbela Dam, completed in 1976, symbolises the aspirations of Pakistani nation for attaining the level of economic development compatible with the modern age demands. With the attainment of independence in 1947, a dispute arose with India over the proprietary rights to the use of waters, particularly, the three Eastern rivers. India's threat to stop supplies from these rivers endangered the very existence of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. It was soon apparent that development of storage reservoirs was an imperative necessity for the agriculture economy of Pakistan and the survival of its people. The water dispute was eventually resolved under the good offices of the World Bank and the division of the Indus river system was agreed upon the "Indus Waters Treaty" of 1960, thus providing an engineering solution to a political problem. Tarbela is one of the World's greatest water resources development projects built on one of the World's largest rivers- the Indus known as the ' Abasin ' or the ' father of rivers'. The project consists of a 9,000 feet (2,743 meters ) long, 465 feet (143 meters) high (above the river bed) earth and rockfill embankment across the entire width of river with two Spillways cutting through the left bank discharging 1.5 M. cusecs (42,476 cumecs) into a side valley. Two auxiliary embankments dams close the gap in the left bank valley. A group of 4 Tunnels (Tunnels # 1,2,3 & 4 ), each half a mile long, and Tunnel # 5 through the right and left abutment rocks respectively have been constructed for irrigation releases and power generation. During the construction operations, the tunnels on left abutment rock were used initially for river diversion. On three of these Tunnels, 2 Power Houses for generating electricity to a tune of 3,478 MW have been constructed are in operation, which supply 40% of demand of the whole nation. There are many ' first ' at Tarbela. The dam is the world's largest, the five tunnels, 14 meters in dia are also the biggest ever built, the outlet gates are again the largest for such high heads, the spillways are yet again large in capacity that the energy carried by the water at peak discharge is equivalent to 40 MHP.
Keywords:Tarbela dam project, Eastern rivers, tarbela dam, Pakistan, India, irrigated agriculture, irrigation, agriculture, indus water treaty, power generation, tunnel, embankment, spillway, peak discharge , Gender
14.
The Indus irrigation system, natural resources and community occupational quality in the delta region of Pakistan
Author(s): Memon, J. A.; Thapa, G. B.
Published year: 2011-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Environmental Management

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Abstract:This study examines the impact of an elaborated irrigation system on the natural resources and society in the deltaic part of the Indus River in Pakistan. Time series information was collected to analyze the ecological and natural resource dynamics, and their impacts on the structure and quality of the occupations of the people in the Indus delta during pre- and post-irrigation system development periods. The information was collected through literature review, reconnaissance, structured questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, and interviews. The findings revealed that the expansion of the irrigation system and the resulting reduction in the downstream flow had their differential impacts on the various segments of downstream ecology and society. Some of the resources, for example the agricultural mudflats have been adversely affected due to the accelerated seawater intrusion that severely impinged on the paddy farms. On the other natural resources like mangroves, the impacts had been both negative and positive. On one hand, the diversity of the mangroves species had deteriorated while on other hand, the mangroves have benefited from such development because of the alleviated pressure of camel grazing as a result of the occupational change on the part of the camel herders. Furthermore, changes in the hydrological regimes had forced the paddy farmers and camel herders to switch to fishing as an alternative source of employment and income. Considering that currently about 87% people are already engaged primarily in marine fishery, this scenario is threatening the sustainability of the fishery resources as well as the livelihoods of all, the traditional and converted fishermen. The findings of the study are therefore meant to advocate the different treatments which should be accorded to the various segments of the downstream ecology and society during the planning of any remedial irrigation projects in order to mitigate the adverse impacts of the previous irrigation development strategies and of any water resources development to be carried out in the future.
Keywords:Irrigation systems, Natural resources, River basins, Mangroves, Irrigation development, Water resource development , Gender
15.
A preliminary review on conservation status of Shivalik landscape in Northwest India
Author(s): Sivakumar, K.; Sathyakumar, S.; Rawat, G. S.
Published year: 2010-01-01
Publisher(s):Indian Forester, Location: Dehra Dun
Source: Indian Forester

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Abstract:The Shivalik landscape is extended from the Indus basin to the Brahmaputra with one gap of over 300 km from the Sapta Kosi to the Manas River. The Shivalik landscape, has been categorized under Indo-Gangetic plains and it has special significance in India's biogeography due to intermingling of taxa from the Indo-Malayan and Palaearctic regions. In the Northwest part of Shivaliks, a total of 21 wildlife protected areas had been established in six States and one Union Territory covering up to ca 2500 km2. Though, more than 80% of existing protected areas of Shivaliks are in the Northwest Shivaliks, it is yet to cover some of the unique biodiversity of this region. Shivaliks in Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh are comparatively not well represented in the existing PA network of this region. Wildlife Divisions of Ropar, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur in Punjab, and the catchment area of Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh have been identified as potential Community/Conservation Reserves. Moreover, four clusters of Protected Areas such as (1) Kashmir, (2) Punjab and Chandigarh, (3) Himachal and Haryana, and (4) Uttarakhand have been identified in this region which may be reviewed and linked through available wildlife corridors. Of the identified four clusters of Protected Areas, two clusters require bilateral cooperation between two States for better coordination and management.
Keywords:Landscape, River basins, Biogeography
16.
Application of a stochastic weather generator to assess climate change impacts in a semi-arid climate: The Upper Indus Basin
Author(s): Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Harpham, C.; Hashmi, M. Z.
Published year: 2014-01-01
Publisher(s):Elsevier Ltd., Location: Oxford
Source: Journal of Hydrology

Keywords / Abstract | Link to Publication

Abstract:Summary Assessing local climate change impacts requires downscaling from Global Climate Model simulations. Here, a stochastic rainfall model (RainSim) combined with a rainfall conditioned weather generator (CRU WG) have been successfully applied in a semi-arid mountain climate, for part of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), for point stations at a daily time-step to explore climate change impacts. Validation of the simulated time-series against observations (19611990) demonstrated the models skill in reproducing climatological means of core variables with monthly RMSE of <2.0 mm for precipitation and 0.4 C for mean temperature and daily temperature range. This level of performance is impressive given complexity of climate processes operating in this mountainous context at the boundary between monsoonal and mid-latitude (westerly) weather systems. Of equal importance the model captures well the observed interannual variability as quantified by the first and last decile of 30-year climatic periods. Differences between a control (19611990) and future (20712100) regional climate model (RCM) time-slice experiment were then used to provide change factors which could be applied within the rainfall and weather models to produce perturbed future weather time-series. These project year-round increases in precipitation (maximum seasonal mean change:+27%, annual mean change: +18%) with increased intensity in the wettest months (February, March, April) and year-round increases in mean temperature (annual mean +4.8 C). Climatic constraints on the productivity of natural resource-dependent systems were also assessed using relevant indices from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) and indicate potential future risk to water resources and local agriculture. However, the uniformity of projected temperature increases is in stark contrast to recent seasonally asymmetrical trends in observations, so an alternative scenario of extrapolated trends was also explored. We conclude that interannual variability in climate will continue to have the dominant impact on water resources management whichever trajectory is followed. This demonstrates the need for sophisticated downscaling methods which can evaluate changes in variability and sequencing of events to explore climate change impacts in this region.
Keywords:Weather generator, River basins, Downscaling, Climate change, Rain, Models, Weather
17.
A review of salinity and waterlogging in the Indus Basin area of Punjab, Pakistan
Author(s): Rathur, A. Q.
Published year: 1982-01-01
Publisher(s):Association of Geoscientists for International Development, Location: Bangkok
Source: Journal of Hydrology

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Abstract:It is concluded that the conjunctive use of groundwater with surface water would provide a suitable remedy for water logging and salinity in the Punjab region of the Indus Basin.
Keywords:Salinity, Waterlogging, River basins, Groundwater, Surface water
18.
Afghan refugees and the temporal and spatial distribution of malaria in Pakistan
Author(s): Rowland, M., M.A. Rab, T. Freeman, N. Durrani, N. Reham
Published year: 2002-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: Social Science and Medicine

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Abstract:Influx of refugees and establishment of camps or settlements in malaria endemic areas can affect the distribution and burden of malaria in the host country. Within a decade of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the arrival of 2.3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province, the annual burden of malaria among refugees had risen ten fold from 11,200 cases in 1981 to 118,000 cases in 1991, a burden greater than the one reported by the Pakistan Ministry of Health for the entire Pakistani population. Political developments in the 1990s led to over half the refugee population repatriating to Afghanistan, and the Afghan Refugee Health Programme (ARHP) was scaled down proportionately. Districts in which the ARHP recorded a reduced incidence of malaria began to show an increased incidence in the statistics of the Pakistan government health programme. This and other evidence pointed to a change in health seeking practices of the refugees who remained in Pakistan, with many turning from ARHP to Pakistani health services as aid declined. Comparison of the two sources of data produced no evidence for the spatial distribution of malaria in NWFP having changed during the 1990s. Nor was there any evidence for the presence of refugees having increased the malaria burden in the Pakistani population, as is sometimes alleged. This highlights the risk of misinterpreting health trends when parallel health services are operating. Over the decade incidence in the refugee camps decreased by 25% as a result of control activities, and by 1997 the burden among remaining refugees had fallen to 26,856 cases per annum. These trends indicate that the burden would continue to fall if political conditions in Afghanistan were to improve and more refugees returned to their homeland.
Keywords:Afghan refugees, temporal distribution, spatial distribution, malaria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Afghan Refugee Health Programme, endemic, ARFP, malaria burden, North West Frontier Province
19.
An empirical analysis of electricity demand in Pakistan.
Author(s): Alter, N., S.H. Syed.
Published year: 2011-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy

Keywords / Abstract

Abstract:Study utilizes cointegration and vector error correction analysis to determination the long and short run dynamics between electricity demand and its determinants. Study uses time series data for Pakistan from 1970 to 2010. Johansen cointegration test indicate that variables integrate in the long run. Error correction term reflects the convergence of variables towards equilibrium. Electricity acts as a necessity in short run and luxury in long run. Study concludes that effective price and income policies, group pricing policy and peak-load pricing policy should be exercised for electricity demand management
Keywords:empirical analysis, electricity demand, Pakistan, energy, supply, consumption
20.
Drainage scavenger tube wells can sustain rural livelihoods: Evidence from Sindh Pakistan
Author(s): Lashari, B.K., S.M. Kori
Published year: 2011-01-01
Publisher(s):
Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy

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Abstract:Pakistan is an agricultural country. The supply of irrigation water to crops is being made through a network of surface irrigation systems and groundwater. The left Bank of Lower Indus covers administrative boundaries of ten districts which includes districts of Nawabshah and Sanghar. The government of Sindh Province installed more than 350 scavenger (saline and fresh bores together) tubewells in Districts Nawabshah and Sanghar with the main objective of providing drainage and to recover shallow fresh groundwater for irrigation supplements. The study was carried out in a command area of 79 tube wells of District Nawabshah to examine the effect of these tube wells on sustainable rural livelihood of irrigated agriculture community. The continuous pumping from the scavenger tube wells for more than two days indicated that there was not any significant change in water quality, thus it is concluded that the scavenger tube well is a good method to control saltwater movement in to freshwater zone by balancing or keeping interface at constant level provided that the ratio of saline water to freshwater pumping is 1:1. Pre-project findings reveal that 91 % of irrigated agricultural land had a severe water logging situation and 9% of the area was moderately water logged. The recorded average water table depth was <0.15 m. The cropping intensity was recorded at <30% and the maximum yield of major crops such as cotton, wheat and rice was 1080, 1400 and 1400 kg/acre and the maximum land value was less than Rs. 40000 per acre. The women and children were the most affected because more than 85% of rural women were engaged in agricultural activities. Post project (1999-2007) results indicated that the average water table depth was below 1.5 m depth from the surface. However, the categorical decrease in water table was: 60% area was below 1.75 m depth and 40% area was between 0.75 and 1.5 m depth. The maximum crop yield of major crops such as cotton, wheat and rice was increased to 148%, 55% and 55%, respectively, and the cropping intensity was increased to 149%. The land value of agriculture command area was also increased to more than Rs. 150 000 per acre (274%). Operation and maintenance of tube wells was determined as Rs. 315/acre, which includes charges of electricity, person deployed for operation, maintenance of tube well and disposal channels. Presently, all this cost is borne by the government of Sindh. The influence of reverse seepage of saline water from the disposal channels has been investigated, which indicated that when channels were constructed above ground surface level, then the seepage of saline water affected about 30 m width in each side of the channel area (Kori et al., 2009). It is concluded that the scavenger tube well was a good approach to control water logging, protect salt water intrusion into the freshwater zone, increase cropping intensity and sustain rural livelihood of irrigated agriculture community. Further, if the operation and maintenance is given to the farmer community then it would be unacceptable to the farmer community because its operation and maintenance is beyond the scope of farmer due to cost and technicality. Also, the scavenger tube wells maintain an unchangeable saline-freshwater interface.
Keywords:scavenger tube wells, Drainage, rural livelihoods, aquifer, groundwater, Sindh, Pakistan, irrigation